This report examines the contribution of bishops in the second chamber during the Thatcher and Blair premierships.
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In addition to examining levels of voting, the Theos report also considers the impact that bishops have on legislation. It reveals that, contrary to accusations that the bishops block controversial or socially liberal items of legislation, it is extremely unusual for them to vote as a group or in enough numbers to change the outcome of particular divisions.
The report argues that reducing the number of bishops to 16 (as proposed by the Wakeham Commission) and releasing them from diocesan responsibilities could result in a more effective role for them, as part of a broader religious element to the House of Lords.
Whilst not taking a position on the establishment of the Church of England, the report does take as its premise the view that faith has an important role to play in the public square and that the institutions of the state are no exception. The idea of secular neutrality is unobtainable.